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SQL DATABASE (MIZO)


Introduction to SQL:
SQL chu Computer language innghahna bulpui (Standard) pakhat, database  luhchilhna (accessing)  leh khawihdanglamtheihna (manipulating)  atana hmante innghahna bulpui   chu a ni a. Heng standard te hi an siamchhuah kum apiang kha standard version anga hman ve mai a ni. Chumi awmzia chu kum 2003 ah khan SQL standard thar siamchhuak ta se,  chu standard a chu a hnu kum engemawzat thleng pawhin hmang reng mahse standard thar an siamchhuah leh loh chuan an innghahna chu 2003 Standard a ni reng mai dawn a ni.

Eng nge ni SQL chu?
1)      SQL chu Structured Query Language lam tawi a ni.
2)      SQL chu database va luhchilh (access) nana hman a ni.
3)      SQL chu ANSI standard computer language pakhat a ni.
4)      SQL chuan database chu queries hmangin a va khawih danglam thin a ni.
5)      SQL chuan database-a data te a va la chhuak thei a.
6)      SQL chuan database-ah data thar a dahlut (insert) thei a.
7)      SQL chuan database-a data awmsate (records) a paih (delete) thei.
8)      SQL chuan database-a data awmsa te a khawihdanglam (update) thei a ni.

SQL chu computer language innghahna bulpui (Standard) pakhat a ni.
SQL chu ANSI (American National Standards Institute) in Computer Language, database luhchilhna leh khawihdanglamna tura siamte innghahna atana a siam a ni a. SQL statement-te chu database-a data va lak chhuah nan leh va khawihdanglam nan hman a ni. SQL hi database program hrang hrang MS Access, DB2, MySQL, Oracle, MS SQL Server, Sybase, Firebird leh a dang dangah hman theih vek a ni.
            Amaherawhchu, SQL language siamchhuah hrang hrang (version) a awm tih erawh hria ila,. Chungte chuan SQL standard awmsa, heng- SELECT, UPDATE, DELETE, INSERT, WHERE leh a dangte bakah hian anmahni pualin extension hran an nei ve leh a ni.

SQL Database Table te
Database reng reng chuan table pakhat emaw a aia tam emaw an nei thin a. Heng table te hi hming awmze nei pek vek thin an ni (Entirnan: sikul, student, subject ).Chung table te chuan data dahluhin a siam records (rows) an tih chu a lo nei ta thin a ni.
Table pakhat ‘student’ tih chu entirnan hmang ila:
Last Name
FirstName
Pawl
Ralte
Liana
X
Hmar
Thanga
XI
Varte
Sena
XII

A chunga table hian records(rows) pathum (row pakhat hi mipakhat tan zel) a nei a, tin column pali (Last Name, FirstName leh Pawl) a nei bawk.

SQL Queries
SQL hmang hian database chu kan va pawh thei a, kan va chawk let vel thei a, tin database-a data awmte kan va la chhuak theiin, Result Set an tih chu a rawn pe chhuak ta thin a ni. Hetianga kan tih dan vel a hi Query kan tih tak chu a ni ta a ni.
A hnuaia query pakhat hi en I la:

SELECT Last Name FROM student;



He query hian a hnuaia mi ang hian result set a rawn pe a:

Last Name
Ralte
Hmar
Varte

Heta kan hriattur pakhat chu database system thenkhatah chuan SQL Statement tawpa semicolon awm hi a ngai kher lo a. Mahse tihthana neih a that avangin semicolon hi kan hmang char char dawn a ni.

SQL  Data Manipulation Language (DML)
SQL (Structured Query Language hi query-te siam nana thu awmze nei leh kalhmang neia remkhawm (syntax)  a ni a. Mahse SQL language hian syntax dang update, insert leh delete tih ang te a huam tel vek tho a.  Heng query leh update command belhkhawm hian Data Manipulation Language (DML), SQL bunghrang chikhat chu a siam a ni.
Hrilhfiahna tawitete lo en ila:
SELECT - database table te tangin data a va la chhuak a.
UPDATE – database table-a data awmsa chu a va tidanglam.
DELETE – database table-a data awmsa te a paih.
INSERT INTO – database table-ah data thar a dahlut thin.

SQL  Data Definition Language (DDL)
SQL bung hrang pakhat Data Definition Language (DDL) chuan database-ah table thar a siamin table awmsa te paih theihna turin phalna a pe a. Tin, DDL hmang hian database-a indexes (keys) tih te table hrang hrang te inzawmdan bikte, leh database-a table hrang hrang te inlaichinna te a siam theih bawk.

DDL statement pawimawh tak tak te chu:-
CREATE TABLE – database-ah table thar a siam a.
ALTER TABLE – database-a table te a siksawi kualin a tidanglam.
DROP TABLE – database-a table awmsa a paih.
CREATE INDEX – database table-ah chuan index (search key) a siam.
DROP INDEX – index a paih.

SQL STATEMENTS

SELECT Statement
SELECT Statement hi table-a data awmsa va lakchhuahnan hman a ni. Result table-ah a a thu va lakchhuahte chu a stored-a chu chu result set tih a ni.
Syntax:
SELECT column_name(s) FROM table_name;

SQL statement te hi case sensitive a nil ova chuvangin hawrawp te leh hian I hman kha a in ang reng. Entirnan: SELECT  leh select chu a hnathawh a in ang reng a ni. Mahse CAPITAL hman thin hi tihthanah neih a tha e.

SELECT Entirna:
Database table “student” tih atanga columns – Last Name leh FirstName la chhuak turin a hnuaia mi ang hian SELECT statement hmang la.
SELECT Lastname, FirstName FROM student;

Database table “student”:
Last Name
FirstName
Pawl
Ralte
Liana
X
Hmar
Thanga
XI
Varte
Sena
XII

Result:
Last Name
FirstName
Ralte
Liana
Hmar
Thanga
Varte
Sena

Student table atanga column zawng zawng lachhuak tur chuan column hming te aiah khan * symbol hi hman mai tur a ni. Hetiangin:
SELECT * FROM student;

Result:
Last Name
FirstName
Pawl
Ralte
Liana
X
Hmar
Thanga
XI
Varte
Sena
XII

Result Set:
SQL query kan siam atanga result kan hmuh chu result-set ah a indahkhawm (stored ) thin a. Database software system zawng zawng hian result-set-a data te chu programming function hrang hrang hmangin entheihna a nei vek a, heng- Move-To-First-Record, Get-Record-Content, Move-To-Next-Record, etc.
Amaherawhchu, Programming function lam chu tun tumah chuan kan sawi hrih lo ang.

SQL statement tawp a semicolon
Tumkhatah SQL statement pakhat aia tam kan siam chuan, SQL statement tinte daidanna atan semicolon hi hman a ni. Database program thenkhat MS SQL Server , MS Access-ah te chuan statement tawp-ah semicolon hman kher a ni ngai lova. Program thenkhatah erawhchuan hman ngei ngei tur a nithung.

SELECT DISTINCT Statement
DISTINCT keyword hi table-a thil in ang awmteuh zingah khan a mal chauh lakchhuah nan hman a ni.
SELECT statement hian table column-a thil awm zawng zawng a la chhuak a,  table column-a thil in ang awm teuh zing a pakhat te chauh kan lak chhuah duh chuan SELECT zawhah DISTINCT hi belh mai tur a ni.
Syntax:
SELECT DISTINCT column_name(s) FROM table_name;

DISTINCT keyword entirna:
A hnuaia mi ang hian table pakhat “student” chu kan nei a. SELECT statement pangai angin query kan siam anga: SELECT * FROM student;
Last Name
FirstName
Pawl
Sikul
Ralte
Liana
X
Gov’t H/S
Hmar
Thanga
XI
Mt Carmel
Varte
Sena
XII
Gov’t H/S
Chawng
Vunga
IX
Gov’t H/S

A chung table atang hian sikul in ang Gov’t H/S tih chu hmun thum ngawtah kan hmu a.  Sikul column atang hian sikul hming hrang chauh kan la chhuak duh ta a. A hnuai a mi ang hian SELECT DISTINCT statement chu kan siam ang:
SELECT DISTINCT Sikul FROM student;

Result:
Sikul
Gov’t H/S
Mt Carmel

Tunah chuan result-set-ah Gov’t H/S pakhat chiah kan hmu tawh a ni.

SQL WHERE Clause
WHERE clause hi table row-ah emaw column-ah emaw kan duhlai chin leh duhlai bik select nan hman a ni.
            Table atanga a chin nei emaw, khaikhinna hmang emaw a kan select duh chuan SELECT statement ah WHERE clause hi belh mai tur a ni,.
Syntax:
SELECT column FROM table
WHERE column operator value;

WHERE clause-ah hian a hnuaia operators hrang hrang te hi hman theih a ni:
Operator
Hrilhfiahna
=
Intluk
<> 
Intluk lo
> 
A lian zawk
< 
A te zawk
>=
Lian zawk emaw intluk
<=
Te zawk emaw intluk
BETWEEN
Thil inkar
LIKE
Column-a thil zawnna
IN
Column hrang hrang atanga I thil lakchhuah duh kha I hriat chian chuan IN hi hman a ni

SQL version thenkhatah chuan  <> aiah != hman a ni.

WHERE Clause hmanna te:

Student table atanga Gov’t H/S a awm zirlaite lachhuak tur chuan SELECT statement-ah WHERE clause kan belh a ngai a ni.
Hetiangin:
SELECT * FROM student WHERE Sikul = ‘Govt H/S’;





Student table
Last Name
FirstName
Pawl
Sikul
Ralte
Liana
X
Govt H/S
Hmar
Thanga
XI
Mt Carmel
Varte
Sena
XII
Govt H/S
Chawng
Vunga
IX
Govt H/S

Result:
Last Name
FirstName
Pawl
Sikul
Ralte
Liana
X
Gov’t H/S
Varte
Sena
XII
Gov’t H/S
Chawng
Vunga
IX
Gov’t H/S

Quotes:WHERE clause-a kan hriat tur pakhat chu operator hnua thu kan dah Govt H/S  hi single quotes hmangin kan kualkhung a ni.
SQL hian thu kualkhung nan single quotes a hmang a ni. Number ang chi erawh quotes hmang hian kualkhung kher a ngai lo.


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